American Handy Book of the Brewing, Malting, and Auxiliary Trades
Written by Robert Wahl and Max Henius and first published in 1901, the American Handy Book of the Brewing, Malting and Auxiliary Trades is a one-volume reference designed to be used by the working brewer. The book's subtitle is "A Book of Ready Reference for Persons Connected with the Brewing, Malting and Auxiliary Trades, Together with Tables, Formulas, Calculations, Bibliography and Dictionary of Technical Terms." It is one of the most-complete and most frequently referred to references on late pre-Prohibition brewing techniques and styles.
Certain sections of this book are available in electronic text form on the Home Brewing Wiki. The complete table of contents is below, with links to the corresponding section of the text where available.
Fractions. Decimal fractions. Percentage. Interest. Ratio. Equation. Proportion. Involution. Evolution. Squares and cubes. Alligation. Arithmetical progression. Geometrical progression. Logarithms.
Lines. Angles. Triangles. Mensuration of areas. Round figures. Trigonometrical functions. Solids or bodies. Mensuration of surfaces. Mensurations of volumes. Capacities of tanks, tubs, etc.
Weights and Measures
United States customary measures and weights. Measures of capacity or volume. Measures of weight. The metric system. Converting metric to common measure. Comparative tables of common and metric measures. Conversion tables. Miscellaneous. Measures of time. Legal units of electrical measure. Money.
Matter. Forces. Properties of matter. Specific gravity. Atmospheric pressure. Moisture of air. Heat. Light. Electricity. Magnetism. Sound.
Velocity. Gravitation. Loss of motion. Work and energy. Simple machines. Mechanics of liquids. Brewery hydraulics. Mechanics of gases. Thermodynamics.
Elements of Machinery
Lever. Wheel and hoisting drum. Inclined plane. Wedge. Screw. Block and fall. Differential drum. Gears. Worm and worm wheel. Screw jack. Differential screw. Principle of virtual velocity. Safety valve. Friction.
Standards and measures for steam engines and boilers. Water. Steam. Combustion. Fuels. Coal-table. Boilers. Grates. Smokestacks. Smoke prevention. Feed-water heaters. Economizers. Boiler water and its treatment. Scale. Corrosion. Boiler scale preventives.
Transmission of Power
Pulleys and belts. Shafts. Stresses. Wire rope transmission. Electrical power in the brewery and malt house. The electric plant.
Portable engines. Stationary engines. Slide valve engines. Corliss engine. Differences of the two kinds of engine. Examination of engine and compressor by taking indications. Criticism of indicator cards. Compressor indicator cards. Steam condensers. Steam tables.
Ice and freezing mixtures. Refrigerating machines. Compression machines. Absorption machines. Relative merits of the different systems. Uses of refrigeration. Water cooling. Cellar cooling. Ice making. Practical tests for material used with refrigerating machines. Properties of different liquids used in refrigerating machines. Solubility of gases in water at atmospheric pressure. Strength of ammonia liquors. Properties of saturated ammonia gas. Operating refrigerating machines. Amount of refrigeration required for a brewery. The steam end of the refrigerating machine. Insulation. Freezing tanks and brine tanks. Insulation of partition walls in cellars. Insulation of cold pipes. Irregular bodies, as pump cylinders with chambers. Water cooling towers or gradir-works.
Centrifugal pumps. Rotary pumps. Pohlé air lift pump. Plunger pumps. Membrane pumps. Piston pumps. Arrangement and connection of pumps. Compressed air pumps. Compressing air by using waste water. Steam ejector. Steam jet pump.
Excavation, filling, concrete work, masonry and brickworks. Iron and steel work. Carpenter work. Painting. Roofing. Hollow tile. Tinning, galvanized and corrugated iron work, Plumbing. Cement floors. Plastering. Asphalt floors. Insulating inside walls of cold storage, stock houses, etc. Miscellancous specifications. Refrigerating machine. Machinery and millwright work. Coppersmith and tank work. Foundation work for machines. Piping. Lightning rods. Appliances and apparatus.
Definitions. Chemical combination and mechanical mixture. Non-metallic elements. Light metals. Heavy metals. Chemistry of carbon compounds (organic chemistry). Alcohols. Organic acids. Fats and oils. Balsams and resins. Gelatin and isinglass. Carbohydrates. Starch, dextrin and sugar. Pectin substances. Torrefaction, or roasting products. Nitrogenous organic compounds, albuminoids. Enzymes, or soluble ferments. Diastase and starch. Peptase and albumen.
General. Water. Hardness of water. General properties of brewing waters. Improving water. English brewing waters. German brewing waters. Extract-yielding brewing materials. Starch-containing brewing materials. Barley. Barley malt. Wheat, wheat malt and rolled wheat. Rye, rye malt, rye flakes. Oats. Corn and rice. Corn and corn products. Starch. Brewing sugars. Hops. Hop preparations. Colorants. Varnish. Pitch. Clarifiers. Antiseptics. Preparing and packing samples for examination.
General biology. Protoplasm. The living cell. Assimilation. Excretion. Respiration. Reproduction. Osmose. Fermentation. putrefaction and decay. Biological description. Filamentous, or mold fungi (hyphomycetes). Table of molds. Fission fungi, or bacteria (schizomycetes). Table of bacteria. Budding fungi, or yeasts (blastomycetes). Table of yeasts. Table of cultivated yeasts.
Yeasts and Fermentation
Historical and explanatory. Fermentation other than alcoholic. Alcoholic fermentation. Beer yeast. Differences in the behavior of yeasts. The products of alcoholic fermentation. Influence of fermentation products and other agencies on yeasts. Chemical composition of yeast. Carbohydrates. Nitrogenous constituents of yeast. Yeast enzymes. Yeast extract like meat extract.
Pure Yeast Culture
General. Pasteur's pure yeast. Hansen's pure yeast. Hansen's pure yeast apparatus. Operating the apparatus. Wahl and Henius' pure yeast apparatus.
Malt House Outfit
Transfer of grain. Elevators and conveyors. Cleaners. Malt storage. Barley washing machines. Steep tanks. Floor malt house. Mechanical malting devices. Pneumatic or box malting. Malting drums. Malt kilns.
General outline. Principles of malting. Points about malting. Steeping. Germinating. Common floor malting. Kilning. American malting operations. Mechanical malting operations. Malting in England. Malting in Europe. Chemical and physiological data and processes. Losses and gains in storing and malting barley. Insect pests in granaries.
Gravity or tower brewery. Brew house outfit. Cellar outfit. Fermenting room. Stock cellar. Chip cellar. Wash house. Pitching, and pitching appliances.
General outline. Properties of a beer. Composition of beer. Beers classified. Wort. Principles of mashing. Diastase and starch. Peptase and albumen. Mashing methods and character of beer. Mashing operations. Mashing systems. Rice and corn in brewing. Prepared corn. Pure starch. American lager beer. Treatment of unmalted cereals. Wahl's lautermash method. A. Schwarz's after-mash method. Pressure mashing. Export beers. Extra pale beers. The mash at rest. Running off the wort. Sparging. Slow flow of wort. Boiling the wort. Break of wort. Bottle beer. Hopping the wort. Cooling. Influence of different materials and mashing methods on the composition of wort. Tables.
Fermenting Cellar Operations.
Bottom fermentation. Fermentation phenomena. The yeast crop. Fermentation phenomena explained. Higher pitching temperatures. Bottom yeast. Strengthening the yeast. Contamination of yeast. Treatment of contaminated yeast. Factors affecting fermentation. Abnormal symptoms in fermentation. Vacuum fermentation system.
Top-Fermentation Beers in the United Kingdom, America and Germany.
English top-fermentation beers. Brewing materials. Brewing systems. Top-fermentation appliances. Fermenting vessels. Top-fermentation operations. Top-fermentation beers in the United States. American ales, porters and stouts. American Weissbeer. Kentucky common beer. Top-fermentation German beers. Berliner Weissbeer. Broyhan. Graetzer beer. Spontaneous fermentation beers. Belgian beers.
Composition of various beers, tables.
Brewing Losses from Malt Mill to Platform.
Shrinkage in volume from kettle to starting tub. Loss from scouring. Loss from malt hopper to mash-tun. Loss in mash-tub. Loss by transfer of wort from kettle to settling tank. Losses during fermentation and storage. Losses in chip cellar. Losses from racking bench to platform. Total shrinkage.
Treatment and Protection of Surfaces.
Cleaning operations. Cleaning of brewery floors, walls, vessels and utensils. Removal of waste products. Varnishing. Varnishing and staining iron vessels. Pitching. Painting. Whitewashing and calcimining.
The Bottling Department of a Modern Brewery
Bottle shop. Bottle soaking. Washing and rinsing. Tapping of barrels. Bottle filling. Bottle closing or stoppering. Pasteurization or "steaming." Finishing the package. Storage and delivery. Pipe lines.
Figuring in the Brewery
Calculating the yield of extract of brewing materials. Table of Balling reading in pounds of extract per barrel. Calculations according to R. Wahl. Yield in the kettle. Concentration of wort in kettle. Calculating the materials. Table of materials for one barrel of wort of different gravities in the cellar. Calculating the cost. Calculating the materials according to M. Schwarz. Materials added in kettle. Yield calculations according to M. Schwarz. Siebel's mechanical yield calculator. Heat calculations according to M. Henius. Where water only is used. Where malt or raw cereal and water are used. At the mash tub. Calculations by means of latent heat, according to M. Henius. Calculation of attenuation. Figuring in English breweries.
The Brewer's Chemical Laboratory
Analytical chemistry. Specific gravity. The saccharometer. Comparative tables of different saccharometers with specific gravity, and giving pounds of extract in wort per barrel. The balances. The thermometer. Conversion tables of thermometer scales. Worts. Beers. Water analysis. Barley. Malt. Corn products and rice. Brewing sugars. Colorants. Hops. Mineral oil. Chemicals, standard solutions and reagents. List of apparatus. Baumhauer's alcohol table. Balling's extract table. F. Allihn's dextrose table.
The Brewer's Microscopal Laboratory
Equipment. Apparatus. Reagents. Stains. Culture media. The compound microscope. Sterilization. Staining bacteria. Pure cultures of micro-organisms. Examinations of materials. Rice. Isinglass. Lupulin. Barley, malt and hops. Water examination. Air examination. Microscopical and botanical examination of yeast. Detecting causes of beer turbidities.
Taxes payable to the United States government. The stamp tax. Special taxes. Books and returns. Removal to warehouse. Bottling beer. Marking casks. Penalties. Exporting fermented liquor in bond. Tonics, etc. What is intoxicating liquor? Liquor laws of the states and territories of the United States.
Purity of American beer. What beer was and is. Report of the United States Senate committee on manufactures. Report of British beer materials committee. Intemperance as affected by general natural laws. Effects of beer on those who drink it. The temperance problem. Statistical information on revenue derived from liquor traffic, capital invested, value, imports and exports of materials, etc.
Standard dimensions of brewery vessels. Sizes and dimensions of standard Corliss engines. Memoranda for builders. Horsepower of boilers and of belting. Temperature of fire. Iron pipe size brass tubes. Measurements and weights of merchandise. Pressure in pounds of a column of water of certain heights. Comparative table of Beaume degrees and specific gravity.
Titles and authors of original contributions to the science and practice of brewing in the United States.
Dictionary of Technical Terms
English-German and German-English.
A list of books, pamphlets and periodicals consulted in the preparation of this book.